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Rwanda, Kigali


Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant

High priority justification

The City of Kigali has sewerage management practices that need to be revised and upgraded to meet the city's growing population. It is estimated that 92% of Kigali’s population rely either on pit latrines or septic tanks as sanitation facilities, while 7 % use semi-centralised systems.

When full, pit latrines are usually closed, and a new pit is built. If there is insufficient space, the pit has to be emptied, usually by means of a vacuum truck. At present, the collected sludge is dumped at the Nduba waste dump. The current dumping of faecal sludge at the Nduba waste dump leads to unacceptable environmental pollution: air, ground- and surface water, foul smell and other hazards. The current practice is to be replaced by environmentally sound treatment of collected faecal sludge.


The Kigali Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant (FSTP) is clearly justified a High Priority Investment project under the LVB IWRM Programme. It is based on a two-step approach, with liquid-solid separation as a first step and the treatment of liquids and solids as a second step. The plant will fully comply with Rwandan effluent standards.


Based on the assumption that the maximum faecal sludge collection will be reached by 2035 with a total collected quantity amount of 483 m³ per calendar day, the faecal sludge treatment plant will be implemented with a treatment capacity of 500 m³ per day allowing for an annual 300- day operation. To allow operational flexibility and to ensure proper maintenance, a two-lane plant operation is envisaged. After treatment on sludge drying beds and an extended storage of two months, the bio-solids should reach a quality that will at least allow for restricted use in agriculture. The quality after treatment also allows for the disposal of the sludge at a controlled landfill if re-use options cannot be implemented.


The project further envisages assessing the technical and financial feasibility of the options: “fuel production” and “composting” at “pilot scale” with either of them processing 10% of the sludge treated at the plant in total.


The final design of the plant will be developed in two steps: At first the preliminary design, involving local authorities and thereafter the detailed design to achieve readiness for construction. During the Preliminary design phase several process options will be investigated and agreed upon.


The detailed design and costing for the project will be developed by the bid-winning contractor and form the basis for project implementation. Once the plant is constructed, a period of operation by the contractor will be considered and will involve training staff at the Water and Sanitation Corporation (WASAC) in operational aspects.



The total cost for the construction of the projected FSTP is estimated to be EUR 8.11 million excluding VAT. Out of this amount, the cost of the access road and the land acquisition will be paid for from the national counterpart contribution to the Project, jointly amounting to an estimated EUR 1.21 million and representing nearly 15% of the total amount. 18% VAT will also be covered by the national contribution. The Lake Victoria Basin Commission (LVBC) has so far secured a EUR 7.5 million (EUR seven million five hundred thousand) grant from both BMZ/KfW and the European Union for the project. The remaining amount from the grant amounting to EUR 0.6 million will be used for operating the plant in its initial operation stage.

The Project and Funding Agreement between LVBC and WASAC has been signed  The tendering process for the selection of a contractor who will prepare the detailed design and build the plant is ongoing.

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